Friday, December 27, 2019

Interest Rates and Other Critical Determinants of...

Interest Rates and Other Critical Determinants of Investment Spending in Bangladesh Background Investment, which is a spending devoted to enhancing or maintaining the existing stock of capital in the economy provides goods and services necessary for better standard of living. Moreover, it has greater importance as a policy tool. Policymakers often try to achieve target growth in GDP by influencing the level of investment. They do so by undertaking policies that influence the rate of interests. The underlying assumption is that investment is negatively related with the rate of investment. Historically, economic theories have suggested negative relationship between investment and interest rates. Changes in either nominal or real†¦show more content†¦To investigate the impact of interest rates on investment spending, we use a simple regression function for the two variables but add several slightly different variables. The starting point of model formulation is; I= f (LR, SR, S, Y, ER)Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â… (1) Where, I = Investment LR = Interest rate on loans SR = Interest rate on savings S = Gross Domestic Savings Y = GDP ER = Exchange rate Investment is not a function of interest rate alone. Factors like income, savings, and saving rate along with lending rate are important issues in setting the level of investment. That is why we need to incorporate all of them in the regression function and test the marginal impact of each of them on investment. Accordingly, the estimating equation used in this study is; where, the term e is the stochastic error term that captures the impact of all other variables not included in the model. Model Validation The coefficient , which gives the change in investment due to one unit change in lending rate is expected to be negative. Other slope coefficients ( are expected to have positive values since their associated variables, interest on savings, savings, and income respectively should influence investment positively. The coefficient can take positive or negative values depending on how a rising trend in exchange rates influence the level of domestic saving. The expected impact is determined by theShow MoreRelatedAn assignment on critical analysis of FDI policy and Import Export policy In Bangladesh5993 Words   |  24 PagesAn assignment on critical analysis of FDI policy and ImportExport policy In Bangladesh MGT-405: International Business Submitted to: Mohammad Shariat Ullah Assistant Professor Department of Management University of Dhaka Submitted by: Tapash Chandra Paul Roll: 35 Section: A; Batch: 17th Department of Management University of Dhaka Submission Date: March 23, 2014 Table of Contents Pages No (A) Foreign Direct Investment in Bangladesh 1.0 Introduction 1.1 FDI and its Concepts 1.2 Importance ofRead MoreEffect of Interest Rate on Foreign Exchange Rate5776 Words   |  24 PagesEFFECT OF INTEREST RATE ON FOREIGHN EXCHANGE RATE (EVIDENCE FROM ASIAN REGION) ABSTRACT: In this article we investigate the impact of a change in U.S. short term interest rates relative to those in some Asian countries like Bangladesh, Thailand, Japan, Pakistan, and China on the bilateral foreign exchange rates between the U.S dollar and each country’s currency. Several factors determine the exchange rate of a country. A higher currency makes a countrys exports more expensive and imports cheaperRead MoreIndustry Analysis of Pharmaceutical Industry in Bangladesh11591 Words   |  47 PagesIndustry Analysis of Pharmaceutical Industry in Bangladesh In Bangladesh the pharmaceutical sector is one of the most developed hi-tech sectors which is contributing in the country s economy. After the promulgation of Drug Control Ordinance - 1982, the development of this sector was accelerated. The professional knowledge, thoughts and innovative ideas of the pharmaceutical professionals working in this sector are the key factors for these developments. Due to recent development of this sectorRead MoreDeveloping Countries in the World Trade in Agriculture: Bangladesh Perspective.19109 Words   |  77 PagesDeveloping Countries in the World Trade in Agriculture: Bangladesh Perspective. 1. Introduction. 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The overall intention of these reforms has been to ensure financial stability so as to influence the growth of the economy and also enhance banks to play a critical role of financial intermediation in Nigeria. However, despite the fact t hat Nigerian banks have undergoneRead MoreInclusive Growth: an Indian Experience6023 Words   |  25 Pagesactivities (such as cooperatives, fishing, dairies, etc.) compared to less than 10 per cent dependent on organized services sector. What is more worrying is that this inequality is going to increase as the agricultural sector is now growing at an annual rate of 2.6 per cent (from a lower base of 18 per cent growth) compared to services growing at 11 per cent (from a higher base of 55 per cent growth). There are too many people locked into the farm sector (with lower productivity and hence lower income)Read MoreTraining and Development: Nigerian Banking Industry8775 Words   |  35 PagesMethods Its Limitations 16 Data Collection Analysis 17 Chapter 4: Results 17 Chapter 5: Discussion Analysis 18 Impact Of Training And Development 19 Purpose Of Trainings In Different Contexts 20 Determinants of training and development 21 Employee Training-Investment or Leisure 22 Learning and Learning Styles 23 Effectiveness of Retraining After Mergers And Acquisition 25 Analysis of Prevailing Research 26 Chapter 6: Conclusion 31 Need for Future Research 33 ReferencesRead MoreFactors Affect Choice of Bank Services23387 Words   |  94 Pagesdeclare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgment has been made in the text. ______________________________ Candidate’s Name __________ Signature ___________ Date Advisor’s Approval This Thesis has been

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Sanctions, Perceptions, And Crime - 852 Words

SANCTIONS, PERCEPTIONS, AND CRIME HOW MUCH DO WE REALLY KNOW ABOUT CRIMINAL DETERRENCE According to the journal article, How Much Do We Really Know about Criminal Deterrence? The concept of deterrence is simple: â€Å"it is the omission of a criminal act because of the fear of sanctions or punishments. Deterrence is an important foundation of the criminal justice system. Law enforcement is there to apprehend those that break the law, and to convince the public that there is a risk of apprehension and punishment if they commit a crime.† â€Å"Laws provide a host of different sanctions for the commission of offenses such as: fines, probation, imprisonment, mandatory minimum sentences, the (three strikes) law, and others are all enacted with the expatiation that sanction threats can deter crime is at the heart of the criminal Justice system.† According to the journal article How Much Do We Really Know about Criminal Deterrence? â€Å"There is an abundance of research about specific police, judicial, and correctional policies, as well as a more gener al theoretical work about deterrence mechanism, with the evidence to date, it is still flimsy.† Researchers hope to isolate and measure a deterrent effect precisely, because a great many things must happen before deterrence can occur. Studies reviewed by the researchers in the article Sanctions, Perceptions, and Crime, â€Å"(1) the relationship between objective sanctions, sanction enforcement, and risk perceptions. This researchShow MoreRelatedSanctions, Perceptions, And Crime : Implications From Criminal Deterrence802 Words   |  4 PagesSANCTIONS, PERCEPTIONS, AND CRIME: IMPLICATIONS FROM CRIMINAL DETERRENCE According to the journal article, the concept of deterrence is simple; it is the omission of a criminal act because of the fear of sanctions or punishments. Deterrence is an important foundation of the criminal justice system. Law enforcement is there to apprehend those that break the law, and to convince the public that there is a risk of apprehension and punishment if they commit a crime. Laws provide a host of differentRead MoreGeneral Deterrence And Its Effect On Society1503 Words   |  7 Pagesstop others and deter them from committing crimes and prevents others form even thinking to commit the crime. That is because the human psyche is always tending to move away from the painful results. As for the specific deterrence, it aims to deter the offender so as not to return to the commission of the offense again, the punishment and pain and their material and moral harm will prevent the offender from returning once again to the commission of the crime. Freeman (2004) suggested that specificRead MorePURPOSE OF THE ARTICLE The authors wrote this article to study the relative effects of threats of1200 Words   |  5 Pagesand control because it is mostly committed by executives who have authority to override internal controls. Other factors such as potential sanctions by external agencies may provide a better defense against financial statement fraud since internal controls may not be an effective deterrent. 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Deterrence theory understands that when there is a low likelihood of getting caught or the punishment is minimal it will not deter the individual from the crime. This theory theorizes the individual as a rational actor who understand the penalties and can logically think and control their actions accordingly. Shoplifters may not be informed of the likelihood of detection, risks, or other punishments of the crime. In this theory: Perceptions of sanction threats are not stronglyRead MoreSummarizing Articles Assignment935 Words   |  4 PagesFear is Fear Itself: Investigating the Relationship Between Fear of Falling and White-Collar Crime Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is to prove or disprove criminological theories of motivation regarding the commitment of white-collar crime. The studys purpose is to determine what, if any, measurable motivation motivated people who retained white-collar positions to commit white-collar crimes. 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Therefore, when dealing with youth crime in Melbourne, only a limited amount of crime is explainable as classical criminology lacks the ability to take extenuating circumstances into consideration. The main focus of classical criminology is centred around the cost-benefit analysis principle. Classical criminologyRead MoreDangerous Classes of New York Essays1074 Words   |  5 Pagesbags of excrement, to housecats and lighter fluid, to bold, cold-blooded murder. In the words of social reformer Charles Loring Brace, this boy is one of the dangerous class—an undisciplined, delinquent youth. A creation of David Simon’s for HBO’s crime drama, The Wire, the character of Kenard may be a fictionalization, but his presence adds to the much-praised realism of the series. There really are young boys like Kenard that exist on the streets of American cities—falling into the easy and familiarRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty Essay1740 Words   |  7 PagesCapital punishment also known as the â€Å"death penalty† is one of the many sanctions used for violent criminal whom are convicted of heinous crimes. It is a government sanction in whic h criminals are put to death by the state government. There’s an on-going debate regarding the pros and cons of the death penalty. There are some individuals whom support the penalty and also a large number of individuals whom are totally against the death penalty. There is no clear decision whether the death penalty is

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Management and Business Context of Bunnings Warehouse †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Management and Business Context of Bunnings Warehouse. Answer: Introduction Bunnings Warehouse was founded in the year 1887 as a limited company but later on changed to a public company in the year 1952. Its headquarters are located in Hawthorn East, Victoria. Bunnings Warehouse is the leading Australian company in the sale of hardware chain; home improvements and the general living products. Bunnings is committed and specialized in offering innovatively created kitchen designs and the splashbacks that are unique in the industry. The company also helps housing project builder customers in color consultancy, building doors, accumulating of BBQ, air conditioning of the buildings and installations of the hot water systems. This organization has two main housing brands; the Ozito power tools and the Click electrical fittings and accessories. The company has grown widely in this business and is currently serving millions of customers in the world and has remained leading in sits market areas (Bunnings, 2017). Definition of key terms Governance Governance defines the established rules, policies, processes and systems through which a given company is directed and controlled. Corporate governance is composed of both the internal and the external factors. The internal factors include the organizational policies, the constitution among others which work together with external factors such as the laws, regulations, and community expectations among others. Corporate governance is a critical concept in business since it helps to establish how these enterprises are lead (Clarke, 2007). Innovation and Entrepreneurship Innovation refers coming up with new ways of doing things through continuous improvement of the existing process, the products or service offered. On the other hand, entrepreneurship usually refers to the organization's ability to manage and organize a new business venture and its willingness to handle the associated these risks related to the investment. Most factors in the business environment are not static, but they are always changing (Lichtenthaler, 2011, pp.138-139). Therefore, adoption of innovation and entrepreneurship is a vital change driver for every business. Knowledge Management Knowledge management refers to the process through which organizations create, use or manage knowledge and information. It explains how organizations can make the best use of knowledge to achieve their objectives. Knowledge management targets to facilitate a smooth transition from those retiring to those succeeding, targets to avoid loss of corporate memory at some point and identify resources and knowledge that is necessary for the organization. Besides, the concept helps the organization to build up and empower others who become the intellectual capital of the organization (Booker et al., 2008). This is, therefore, important for the team since it facilitates business continuity and the overall achievement of company's objectives. Innovation and Entrepreneurship at Bunnings Innovation models can be defined in different ways depending on their nature (Oke, 2007, pp. 564-587). Change is essential for growth and sustainability of Bunnings. The company has made efforts to improve and promote innovation and entrepreneurship. Innovation and entrepreneurship have a direct impact on the business since sustaining innovation increase the organization's sustainability. Through innovation and entrepreneurship, Bunnings has managed to deliver value and quality to its stakeholders. The company has, therefore, managed not only to improve the brand quality but also to extend the brand reach to its customers. Bunnings has increased the number of stores, came with programs that are customer oriented thus increasing the product value to them. Some of these plans of Bunnings include FlyBuys loyalty programs and also the PowerPass offers. These are some of the creative programs that this company has created through creativity and innovation to increase customer value. Innovative branding of Bunning's products and an increase in the number of stores has ensured that the brand reaches most of its customers (Chessum, 2017). Also, the company has managed to adopt technological innovation and accepted to handle the possible risks that may arise out of this. Implementation of the innovation ideas is associated with many risks. An entrepreneurial company, therefore, needs to accept these risks and work out on how to manage them. Bunnings Warehouse has established an online store which has facilitated convenience and easy reach to customers. Online sales have extended the company channel to reach more consumers. This use of technology has targeted particular customer segment and thus increased the market for products and services of Bunnings. Besides, Bunnings Warehouse has demonstrated its support of innovation through the use of technology by assigning dedicated technological expertise to handle technological innovations. This among others describes the commitment of Bunnings for innovation (Neilan, 2016). Innovation and Entrepreneurship have been the key value for the business longevity of Bunnings. It ensures the continuity of the firm despite the change in the business environment thus sustaining the business life of this company. Innovation should be continuous, and therefore there is a need for Bunnings implement the strategy that supports innovation in all ages. Failure to design strategies that ensure change sustainability can cause an end to an innovative culture at some point. It is also evident that innovation and entrepreneurship contribute to the business profitability and the general business growth. Bunnings is, therefore, able to benefit from the value derived out of these new ways of doing things and thus get financial gains out of innovation (Enkel, et al., 2009, pp.311-316). Also, Bunnings Warehouse may face challenges during innovation and entrepreneurship implementation. The primary challenge in the endeavor is usually the failure to align the implementation strategies with the business operation correctly. Approaches taken to achieve innovation in an organization must be in alignment with the company process else the business will face resistance in its course. Also, Bunnings should establish a risk management system to handle or mitigate the potential hazards that may arise out of this course. This can be attained through implementation of the system that identifies risks, perform risk examination and analyses, solve the risk and finally monitor and evaluate the possible risks that may happen again. Risk management system increases the company's entrepreneurial spirit or its willingness to support innovation (Midgley, 2010). Domestic contextual factors Impacting Bunnings Warehouse Political Instability The operations of every company depend on the political state of the country of exploitation. If the political condition of the country is stable, there is a likelihood of the company to thrive well, but when there is political instability, the organization's business operation is affected in many ways, hindering innovation and entrepreneurship, leading to low productivity and the general profitability of the business enterprise. The government regulations Different countries have different policies and regulations that may affect the business in various ways. Some state policies may restrict the general operation of the company and make it difficult to carry out some activities. Bunnings success can be partly attributed to the better government policies in the countries of its operation since most of its operations such as innovation are legalized, and the company has not had restrictions from the policies (Anders, 2017). Infrastructure Locally, infrastructure has an enormous impact on the organization's productivity and the general profitability. Basic infrastructural elements such as transport and telecommunication substantially affect the general well-being of the company thus lowering their profitability. Poor transport affects the movement of people and goods from destination to another while poor telecommunication system affects the information sharing among different people. International contextual factors impacting Bunnings Warehouse The Economic factors The Economic state of the world has the effect on the operation the company. The economic situation of the world is determined by many aspects like inflation, the labor conditions, and cost of production among many others. Companies make more profit when the economic state is good, but their profit is lowered when the economic state is bad. Companies need to come up with the strategies to apply during the hard economic state. Bunnings has managed to survive through bad economic states by its incorporation of the innovation and entrepreneurship culture. Cultural factors The operations of the company are significantly affected by the culture in the environment of operation. Different cultures have different effects on business. The beliefs of the people have the influence on what they consume and thus the specific products which they buy. It is, therefore, important for Bunnings to understand the cultural state of people in which it runs its business so that it can deliver the best for them that meets their cultural demands (James Szeman, 2010). Legal factors Legal factors have a great impact on business since the company must adhere to the established legal system. This includes tax laws, ownership rights, the business registration process and rewarding systems among many others. At times there are some established laws which are discriminative, and this impacts the business operation to a large extend. Bunnings should use innovation and technology to analyze, understand various legal systems and then come up with strategies to handle various legal issues. Conclusion In conclusion, innovation and entrepreneurship are critical to every business organization. Companies should put in place policies that control, promote and sustain innovation since it is the driver to sales. The best way of embracing change is through incorporation into the organizational culture. Companies that embrace innovation and entrepreneurship enjoy many advantages that increase their productivity and give them a competitive advantage. Making use of the latest technology is also the best for businesses to take since it helps them get reach to many customers and of various segments. Also, it is important for Bunnings to understand the various domestic and international contextual factors that can affect its business operation. References Anders Kjellberg (2017)."Self-regulation versus State Regulation in Swedish Industrial Relations." pp. 357-383 Booker L., Bontis N., and Serenko A. (2008). "The relevance of knowledge management and intellectual capital research." Knowledge and Process Management.15(4): 235246 Bunnings (2017).Retrieved from Chessum, Victoria (2017)."Bunnings Warehouse chain to replace former BQ site in Folkestone." Retrieved from Christensen, C.M., Raynor, M.E. McDonald, R. (2015). What is Disruptive website at accessed 05 May 2016? Clarke, Thomas (2007)"International Corporate GovernanceLondon and New York: Routledge,ISBN 0-415-32309-6 Dahlan, L. and Gann, D. (2010). How open is innovation?', Research Policy, Vol. 39, pp.699709 Enkel, E., Gassmann, O. and Chesbrough, H. (2009). Open RD and open innovation: exploring the phenomenon,' RD Management, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp.311316. Gassmann, O., Enkel, E. and Chesbrough, H. (2010). The future of open innovation,' RD Management, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp.213221 James, P. Szeman, I. (2010). Globalization and Culture, Vol. 3: Global-Local Consumption. London: Sage Publications. Lichtenthaler, U. (2011). Is open innovation a ?eld of study or a communication barrier to theory development?A contribution to the current debate, Technovation, Vol. 31, pp.138-139. Midgley, D. (2010). Integrated Strategies and Practical Tools for Bringing Value Innovation to the Market, Wiley Neilan, Catherine (2016)."Homebase to be rebranded Bunnings after Wesfarmers completes 340m acquisition from Home Retail Group - now what's happening with Argos?". Retrieved from Oke, A. (2007). Innovation types and innovation management practices in service companies. International journal of operations and production management, 27 (6), pp. 564-587

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Symbols In The Great Gatsby Essay Research free essay sample

Symbols In The Great Gatsby Essay, Research Paper Gatsby In the Great Gatsby, a batch of things can be looked at as symbols. The conditions, Daisy # 8217 ; s frocks, the eyes of Dr. T. J. Eckleburg, and even the visible radiations. By utilizing symbols, Fitzgerald makes the narrative more deep, and gratifying for some readers. Fitzgerald besides uses assorted subjects throughout his narrative of the Great Gatsby, like Gatsby # 8217 ; s # 8220 ; American dream. # 8221 ; The two most of import symbols in the narrative are the green visible radiations at the terminal of daisy # 8217 ; s dock, and the eyes of Dr. T. J. Eckleburg. The green visible radiations represent Gatsby # 8217 ; s # 8220 ; American dream # 8221 ; and his longing for daisy. The reader doesn # 8217 ; t understand this for a piece though. Fitzgerald shows us subsequently that this is what they stand for, to demo how something simple can stand for so much. The eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg is merely a mark that lingers over the vale of ashes. The reader can construe it as anything he/she wants. Toward the terminal of the novel, nevertheless, George Wilson interprets the eyes as the eyes of God, and he must move decently under them. Gatsby # 8217 ; s American dream is the subject throughout the narrative. He lives a life of luxury, throwing immense parties, and life in a sign of the zodiac. Gatsby wanted this life since he was a child. He besides wants the miss of his dreams, Daisy, in his life, merely he can # 8217 ; Ts have her because she is in love with Tom. Gatsby makes Daisy a symbol of everything he wants because of her beauty, wealth, and worry-less attitude. There are besides little symbols and subjects in the narrative every bit good. The colour of daisy # 8217 ; s white frock, for illustration, sets the temper for the scene. And on the hottest twenty-four hours of the twelvemonth is when Tom and Gatsby have their confrontation. Overall, the symbols and subjects in this narrative seem to come together because of Gatsby # 8217 ; s dream for Daisy, which is the symbol of the green visible radiations, who is everything Gatsby wants. Even though the visible radiations are merely visible radiations, and the eyes of Dr. T. J. Eckleburg is merely a large mark, the people of the Great Gatsby take significance to them because they feel the demand to woolgather something, or necessitate them to fault something on.